Micro-Economic Model

ll 🙏🏻 नमस्ते 🙏🏻 ll

Aaj ke iss article 📜 मे ham micro-economic model ke बारे में समझेंगे l यह concept readers ko काफी complicate lagta hai lekin ham isse काफी आसानी से समझेंगे l

Iss concept ko samjne ke liye ham ek case ko pahile study करते हैं l
“One day Vineet went to D-Mart to purchase a cookie 🍪 packet of ₹20. He bought a cookies packet and paid ₹20 on the payment desk.”
From the above case हमें तीन चीजों के bareme information मिलती है जैसे: –
1) ₹20 is the price of Cookies 🍪 packet (Product)
2) ₹20 is expenditure for Vineet
3) ₹20 is income for D-Mart
From the above case हम National Income count करने के तीन methods ko समझेंगे l

A) Income Method: – From the above case ₹20 is income for D-Mart 🏬. इसका मतलब D-Mart ke income me ₹20 increase हो गया l इसी concept ko ham GVA (Gross Value Addition) bhi कहते हैं l For instance हम National Income को GVA consider करते हैं l ₹20 is the product price. To earn ₹20 D-Mart paid income in Rent (Land), Wages (Laborers), Interest (Capital), and Profit (Entrepreneur).
GVA = R + W + I + P
From the above concept, we should easily understand that “The earned income of all households & firms within a nation in given financial year is national income”.

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B) Product Method: – Value of Cookies 🍪 packet is ₹20. From this type ham India me produce होने वाले हर ek goods and services ke value se national income calculate कर सकते हैं l
GVA = ( G + S ) – IC
G = Value of Goods,
S = Value of Services,
IC = “Intermediate Consumption” means हम किसी की भी Goods aur Services ki final value consider करते है l Case me hamne cookies 🍪 packet ki price ₹20 बताई गई l jisme wheat bhi include hai जो indirectly include होती है issilye hamne IC को Value se deduct किया l
From the above concept, we understand that “The monetary value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in given financial year is national income”.

C) Expenditure Method: – Vineet bought a cookies 🍪 packet for ₹20. For Vineet ₹20 is expenditure. From this type, country ke expenditure दो types ke हो सकते है i.e. Consumption (C) and Investment (I)
GVA = C + I
The above equation is limited to microeconomics. If we include the Government and the world 🌍 in it so it will give us GVA.
Government Expenditure (G), Export (E), Import (I)
GVA = C + I + G + ( X – M )
From the above concept, we easily understand that “The National Income is the total of expenditure by households, firms & government and the value of net exports in the given financial year”.

CSO (Central Statistics Office) India का national income measure करती है l India me product method aur income method से national income ko calculate kiya जाता था l From 2015, CSO तीनों methods ka इस्तेमाल करके national income ko calculate karti hai.
Aapko yah concept कैसा लगा hame jarur बताएं l Aur aapke views comment section me लिखें ✒️ l

ll 🙏🏻 धन्यवाद 🙏🏻 ll

-j₹k, p$m.

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